Detailed Description of VO2 Ultimate :
VO2 Ultimate is designed to increase both physical and mental performance.
It does this through a variety of mechanisms, including reducing fatigue, increasing VO2 peak levels, and significantly decreasing lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and creatinine kinase levels. The benefits of VO2 Ultimate are not only limited to physical performance but will also improve mental concentration.
The potent effects of Siberian Ginseng, Rhodiola Rosea, Gynostemma Pentaphyllum, Echinacea, Turmeric, Long Pepper class VO2 Ultimate as an ‘Autoprojector’.
This means it has the unique ability to increase mental performance and physical stability, without increasing oxygen consumption.
All ingredients in VO2 Ultimate are organic and plant-based. It’s vegetarian and vegan-friendly, and any side effects are negligible.
Peak levels of VO2 are achieved about an hour after ingestion, once the active ingredients reach the blood stream and become bioactive.
Organic Siberian Ginseng Extract (1.2 % eleutherosides B&E)
Scientific name: Eleutherococcus Senticosus
Part used: Root
- Elevates peak VO2 levels, improves endurance time, and significantly increases heart rate. [1,9]
- Improves brain health and cognitive function by relieving mental strain. 
Siberian ginseng, also known as Eleuthero, is native to Eastern countries including China and Russia. Siberian ginseng is a shrub which grows in mountain groves and bare forests, up to 2,500 feet above sea level.
Siberian Ginseng has a long history of medical use, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. The bioactive phytochemicals present in Siberian Ginseng are Eleutherosides B, E, E1, and E2 and Syringoresinol. These can all provide anti-fatigue effects and improve physical and mental performance.
Siberian ginseng is a well-established adaptogen – a natural metabolic regulator which can increase work capacity. Unlike stimulants, the performance-enhancing effects remain constant after reaching peak levels, rather than diminishing quickly.
There are multiple clinical studies that show the Siberian Ginseng’s effectiveness for enhancing endurance. It elevates cardiovascular functions and allows the body to use glycogen more efficiently. The studies showed that Siberian ginseng can elevate peak VO2 levels, improve endurance and significantly increase heart rate. [1,9]
In addition to ergogenic effects, Siberian Ginseng also improves brain health and cognitive function by relieving mental strain. 
Organic Rhodiola Rosea Extract (3% salidroside)
Scientific name: Rhodiola Rosea
Part used: Root
- Increases energy levels and decreases ammonia concentration.
- Reduces lactate levels and parameters of skeletal muscle damage.
- Anti-depressant effects.
- Increases time to exhaustion and elevates VO2peak and VCO2peak levels.
Rhodiola Rosea grows mainly in sandy areas and dry ground at higher altitudes, in frosty areas of Asia and Europe. The plant grows up to around 70cm in height, has characteristic yellow flowers. It is a perennial plant with a thick rhizome, which is fragrant when cut.
Several pharmacological and clinical studies of Rhodiola Rosea have reported its ability to reduce fatigue, as well as improvements to physical and mental performance. There are several mechanisms through which Rhodiola Rosea can increase endurance and general health.
Features of Rhodiola Rosea that have been studied include:
The stimulation of essential energy metabolites, especially adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or resynthesis in mitochondria of skeletal muscle during exercise.
A decrease in ammonia concentration in the muscles of mice and subsequent increase their physical work capacity and endurance. 
A reduction in lactate levels and markers of skeletal muscle damage after an exhaustive exercise session. 
Anti-depressive potency in patients with mild to moderate depression. It can reduce depression, insomnia, and emotional instability. 
Increasing time to exhaustion, and elevating VO2peak and VCO2peak levels. 
Organic Jiaogulan “Gynostemma Pentaphyllum” extract (30% saponins)
Scientific name: Gynostemma Pentaphyllum
Part used: Dried or fresh leaves
- Decreases blood lactate levels. 
- Increases liver glycogen reserves, which may assist with maintaining more regular blood glucose levels for energy. 
- Anti-oxidant properties of that can reduce cellular damage. 
Gynostemma Pentaphyllum – locally termed “Jiaogulan” – is an herbaceous perennial plant. The most favorable areas for growing this plant are shaded, humid places. It is native to Japan, Southern China, India, and Korea. It is a well known herbal medicinal plant.
The bioactive phytochemicals of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum include saponins (triterpene glycosides or gypenosides), polysaccharides, and makin (GPMP). The combination of these phytochemicals provide anti-aging, anti-fatigue, anti-oxidant and immune-boosting properties.
The significant antioxidant effect of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum can decrease cellular damage.
Gynostemma Pentaphyllum extract can also increase liver glycogen reserves, and assist in maintaining high energy levels. [14,15]
Organic Echinacea 20:1 Extract
Scientific name: Echinacea Angustifolia
Part used: Narrow-leaved coneflower
- May improve aerobic fitness by increasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
- Significantly increases EPO production, VO2max and running economy.
Echinacea is a bioactive compound derived from Echinacea Angustifolia, a native plant of North America. The purple, cone-shaped flowers are a characteristic feature of this plant.
It is a perennial plant which belongs to Asteraceae family. The active constituents of Echinacea include caffeic acid derivatives, polyacetylenes, alkylamides, and polysaccharides. These active components provide anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, antioxidant and cicatrizing activities.
Native Americans have long used this plant for treating various ailments. It has immune-boosting properties which are also effective for improving the oxygen capacity of the blood.
Echinacea extracts can increase circulating concentrations of erythropoietin (EPO), red blood cell count, red blood cell size, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit.
When taken orally, Echinacea increases maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Ingestion of Echinacea extract improves the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood by increasing production of erythropoietin, a glycoprotein which regulates red blood cell formation.
The result is an improvement in both VO2max and running economy, two key indicators of aerobic fitness. [16, 17]
Organic Turmeric (50% Curcumin)
Scientific name: Curcuma longa.
Part used: Ground rhizome
- Increases grip strength and endurance by reducing lactate, ammonia, Blood urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and creatinine kinase levels. 
- Improves energy reserves by increases in muscular glycogen.
- Can modulate central neuronal monoaminergic neurotransmission and reduce fatigue syndrome.
- Anti-inflammatory effect can reduce exercise-induced muscle damage.
Turmeric is a perennial herb. The ground rhizome of the turmeric contains plant alkaloids, called curcuminoids. The main curcuminoid in Turmeric is curcumin – a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative used in the traditional Ayurvedic (India) and Chinese (China) medical systems. It has long been used to treat several aliments, due to its significant anti-inflammatory effects. It also has potential ergogenic and anti-fatigue properties.
Curcumin’s effects are dose-dependent. It can decrease lactate, ammonia, urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and creatinine kinase levels during physical exercise. Studies have shown decreases in these parameters to be associated with increases in grip strength and endurance.
Curcumin significantly increases muscular glycogen content, which is an important energy source for exercise. It can also modulate central neuronal monoaminergic neurotransmission, especially the transmission of serotonin. This can significantly reduce fatigue symptoms.
Lastly, curcumin has been shown to improve exercise performance by reducing inflammation and exercise-induced muscle damage. 
Organic Long Pepper Extract (5% piperine)
Scientific name: Piper longum
Part used: Dried fruits
- Acts as a bioavailability enhancer of Curcumin. 
Long Pepper contains piperine, a compound which works synergistically with curcumin by enhancing its bioavailability and absorption. In addition to this, there are several other positive benefits associated with Long Pepper.
The liver is the main site of drug metabolism. Piperine can inhibit drug metabolizing enzymes and prolong curcumin action. Piperine can also increase curcumin absorption in the GIT by stimulating gut amino acid transporters, raising the bioavailability of the drug.
Piperine can inhibit the cell pump responsible for drug elimination from cells, and inhibits intestinal production of glucuronic acid. It also inhibits enzymes like P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Both of these protein-containing enzymes are responsible for first-pass elimination. 
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